Firefly 2014 Review: The Origin of Bro Alley

June 24, 2014 Randy Neil

As a Delawarean, I felt it was my duty to attend the 2014 Firefly Music Festival.  For 3 years now, Red Frog Events has hosted the huge music festival in Dover, Delaware and I’ve made it to all three.  They’ve nearly quadrupled the size of the inaugural event , which has come with its perks and problems.  The atmosphere has changed a bit, the “bros” have become a bit more “bro-ey”, but Firefly still stands to be one of the most enjoyable summer events for Delaware.

This year, Firefly changed its format to a 4-day event as opposed to a 3-day in the prior two.  While the expansion was greatly welcomed, the first day’s shows did not begin until 5pm, unlike the other days which began around noon.  Some could argue that the line up for that Thursday didn’t boast any widely known acts.  I tend to agree with that notion, but there was still some worthwhile music to enjoy.  Every year the music acts have run later and later (the first Firefly’s shows stopped around 12am every night).  Just like past events, Red Frog will learn that Bonnaroo tends to schedule correctly and they should emulate that, especially when it comes to having an empty day during the festival.

This was the first year I actually purchased a campsite, so I can’t really compare the experience first-hand, but it seemed like things were a bit more organized.  The grounds had almost doubled in size and a secondary northern lot with a designated entrance was added to make things a little less hectic.  How much walking and waiting it saved me was hard to say.

Now, if you can imagine the ominous notes from the original Law & Order sequence, I will take you day by day through the line up that I was able to see, starting with –


Waiting around for the events to start became a bit demoralizing.  As I mentioned before, the shows didn’t begin to 5pm and there wasn’t really anyone noteworthy to enter for immediately, so the wait became a daunting task.  A man can only drink so much alcohol in the hot sun without losing his mind or losing his soul.  I often compare music festivals to voluntary refugee camps and that felt the most appropriate on Thursday.

Our neighbors were, for the most part, respectful and decent human beings.  The festival community atmosphere was abundant, although across our row of cars became what I will constantly refer to as, “Bro Alley.”  Your typical Corn-Hole, Kan Jam, Keystone Lights, and EDM music were all present, but that was expected.  Bro Alley came to fruition because of 4 unique New Jersyans (who’s accents ran wild) touting American flag shorts and shape-ups.

They had set up a game of Polish Horseshoes in the middle of this grass field across from our row of cars and spent a majority of the morning, afternoon, and evening inviting fellow festival-goers to participate.  Not much harm there.  What made these guys so particularly douchey is that they would introduce this game to a new participant, explain the rules, then proceed to pummel them, figuratively and verbally.  While I lay resting under the EZ-up of my lot, I would abruptly be startled from my daze to the screams of “OHHHHH EAT A DICK SON!!!” and “USA!” chants.  Not a single person left their game happy.  Go figure.

It was time to head into the festival.

First up on the docket was Courtney Barnett, an Australian grunge singer.  The show went well, but some of her songs came off a little monotonous.  That could have just been the alcohol and sun making me so irritable.

I moved on to Amos Lee for a brief period before making my rounds to Local Natives, the main headliner for Thursday.  It was hard to fathom that Natives was large enough to warrant the Thursday time-slot, but they didn’t disappoint.  Nothing seemed to blow me away, but I knew better shows were in store the following days.

Placed outside the festival in the campsites were “Hubs”, which had a few merchandise tents, food trucks, and shower stalls.  You could charge your phone or get free water, too.  Red Bull decided to place a few stages within the hubs, but I never got to see anyone in them.  Thursday night, however, after the last show let out, I decided to walk down and see what the “post-festival” activities of the Hub were.

I walked towards the Red Bull stage the featured some pretty good electronic music.  It was hard to tell who was playing, but a crowd had gathered to cheer and dance.  I walked up to the crowd of about 200 who were raising their hands, clapping, and pointing towards the stage.  It was hard to tell who the DJ was because of the strobe lights and smoke machines.  When I was finally able to see the stage, I was blown away to see that the DJ was…. no one.  There wasn’t anyone on stage.  At all.  Not sure what else people would do to enjoy the music in that scenario, but it was tickling to see so many drugged-out hippies dancing to a person that wasn’t there.  We dubbed him “DJ Mystery.”


Finally, I could wake up (in the blistering sun at 7:30am) with some hope of seeing music relatively soon.  I could be entertained.  This boosted the morale of the entire camp, which was desperately needed after almost 48 hours of not showering and being covered in sweat, dust, and sunscreen.

Sadly, this was short lived.  My hopes of seeing Mean Lady (Newark, DE’s only representative in the festival) were cut short because of my friend Sweede’s arrival to Dover Downs.  He was staying at our campsite, showed up late, and needed to be accompanied from his car to our campsite.  Simple enough, right?

Well that trip was over 3 miles from car to campsite, and we escorted over 2 cases of beer and clothes in the hot sun on that trip.  What was supposed to be a 30 minute excursion turned into 3.5 hours and we missed a majority of Friday’s daytime activities.  Harsh toke, bro.

When we finally got situated and in the festival, Iron & Wine were playing on the Main Stage.  Not really my cup of tea, but people seemed to enjoy the show.

Next up was Portugal the Man, which was really impressive.  I knew a lot of their songs and they did a good job.  I was happy to see the show, but left early to get a shot at a good spot for Chance the Rapper.

Chance was great.  He came out with a ton of energy.  The live band and soulful rapping was a great fit for the sunset.

Later that night was Foo Fighters.  Everyone told me to go see Dave Grohl perform and I wouldn’t regret it.  I didn’t.  I’m great at hating things that a lot of people like, but I just couldn’t do it.  Foo Fighters put on a great show for 2 hours and impressed me.

I chose White Denim as my late night show after the headliner.  I picked these guys because they came off like a southern progressive rock band with some pretty intense visuals and long, drawn-out jam sessions.  It was either that or Girl Talk, and to be honest, the novelty of mashing two genres of music together as a DJ wears off pretty quickly.  The guy looks like sort of a douche, too, although I hear he spent his early career studying to be a bio-engineer or something pretty noteworthy like that.


Finally, I could dedicate the entire day to music worry-free.  Bro Alley had been relatively tolerable the past few days due to the festival activities and spirits were high.  The cloudy, overcast sky made the temperatures much milder and more enjoyable.

First up was New Sweden.  Delaware’s “best Indie rock band” three years running did not disappoint.  It was great to see Delaware making such a great representation in the festival.  Their folky music was a perfect beginning to the day and the general atmosphere of the festival-goers was pleasant.

I made it over to catch Geographer as well.  If you aren’t familiar with them, well neither was I.  I decided to take a chance on a new band per a friend’s recommendation.  As someone who uses a loop pedal and synthesizers, it was interesting to see how that would translate to a live show.  It really didn’t.  Their drummer kept up with the BPM structure really well (most drummers don’t sync up with a metronome during a live show, this guy did it on the fly), but there are better versions of this band.  See Starfucker or Millionyoung.

After that was… get ready…. Third Eye Blind.  I pretty much had to attend this show, mostly for nostalgia purposes.  What I didn’t expect was that nearly 20,000 other people seemed to feel the same way.  A lot of people.  Young people.  People that were 5 years old when “Graduate” was released.

Stephen+Jenkins+Entertainment+Weekly+Party+oePFyGKZ2DFlThe show was pretty much what I expected.  His new songs were terrible, he was egotistical, he had a hard time hitting a lot of the notes, his band line-up had changed immensely, and it was corny.  I felt corny, but as Sweede said during the concert, “There are a lot of happy white people right now!”  True that, Sweede.

The most ridiculous thing from the show (aside from frontman Stephen Jenkins saying to the crowd, “Thank you for loving us!”) was that for the final song, Jenkins kept praising himself in the most egotistical, yet passive way.  He would say things to come off humble, but still sound arrogant as hell.  Literally, for their last song, Jenkins said, “We love you guys!  We do this for the fans!  We honestly come out here with no set list and just play what you guys want to hear!”  He hadn’t played Jumper yet.  He was also reaching for his acoustic guitar while saying this, and then asked, “So what do you guys want to hear?  Huh?  What’s that?  Jumper?  You want to hear Jumper?  Wellllllllll, okkkaaaaaaaaaay… I wish youuuuu would step back from thaaaat ledge my friiiieeennddd”  Like, yeah, no shit you were gonna play Jumper, guy.

What happened after the Third Eye Blind show was unexpected. The show let out and something turned.  The atmosphere had gotten really aggressive and unpleasant.  Something about Third Eye Blind had made every one in attendance almost mad with rage.  Swarms of people were walking around, slamming into each other, snidely cursing and frantically rushing like ants on a hill.  There was no order.

The large group people who decided to return to the campsite, including myself, were annoyed and uneasy.  You could feel the agitation in the atmosphere.  This year, unlike prior years, Firefly staff were tasked with the burden of scanning people out of the festival.   Sure, this could help Red Frog track festival-goers behavioral patterns even more for marketing purposes, but it clearly should have been dismissed as a crazy notion from the start.

There were thousands of people trying to leave the festival and they were expected to wait and be scanned one at a time?  A huge crowd gathered by the exit and drunken madness ensued.  A few bold people started to rip down the fence and sneak through.  Security guards were frantically yelling, the crowd was yelling, and all I could think was, “Damn you, Third Eye Blind.”

Naturally, once the organization broke down, security guards gauged the situation, and just gave up.  Red Frog would be wise to eighty-six that idea next year.

After the much needed break, I headed back into to the Festival to catch Cage the Elephant.  They put on a great show, and soon after I moved on to Tune Yards and Imagine Dragons.  Both were also good shows.

Later that night I was able to catch Beck from the 3rd row.  He put on an amazing show.  I’m not going to lie, I don’t own many of his albums.  I know a lot of his hits, I love his album Guero, but it easy to enjoy the show regardless.  Beck was an amazing front man and it is easy to see why he earned the unique reputation of elite rock personnel.

Right after was Outkast.  Another amazing show.  It was pretty incredible to see Big Boi and Andre 3000 reunite, along with a special appearance from Sleepy Brown.  They played a lot of their classics from Southernplayalisticadillacmuzik and Aquemini, as well as a lot of the big hits from the 2000’s.

I wanted to stay around for either Pretty Lights or White Panda, but by that point my body was just too sore.  I had walked miles, pushed through crowds, and danced a ton.  Some sleep was needed.

Unfortunately, I never got it.  What I got was a restless night of heat, noise, and confusion.  Bro Alley was in full force Saturday night.  A lot of people decided to treat Saturday as the last night so everyone in the campsites around me were pretty much in full-party-mode.

I actually didn’t mind it too much.  This sort of thing was expected and I had built a huge tolerance for human nature during this period, but it still was hard to sleep throughout the elements.  What was worse is that eventually, a lot of people stopped partying after a while.  Bro Alley did not.  Bro Alley had a lot of molly and cocaine (which, I can confirm, thanks to their continual yelling of this).

Other campers were getting annoyed.  Even the people parting til 4 in the morning were annoyed.  I could hear a mutiny brewing.  I had to make the trek to the portable restrooms a few times throughout the night, each time more unique as the night went on.  A crowd kept lingering around the “King Bro’s” car, dancing to terrible EDM.  They had glass eyes, glow sticks, and zombie dance moves.  It was ugly, and it pushed on until the sun came up on –


The campers next to me had enough of Bro Alley and decided to complain.  According to Red Frog, the campsite’s quiet hours were from 2am until 6am.  It was about 5:30am and King Bro’s subwoofers were in full effect.  A group of security guards came over, but they eventually ended up taking Fireball shots with the crew rather than quieting them.

The campers next to me were pretty pissed, but they just ended up loudly complaining on the outside of my tent for a few hours about respect and consideration after they had just finished partying until 4 in the morning at a music festival.  Oh, the irony.

I think I slept from 8am til about 8:45.  At this point, though, I didn’t care.  Like I said, it was expected, and Sunday’s lineup was enough to keep my spirits high.

First up was Dan Croll.  This was a great show that I had been looking forward to.  His light surf-rock-esque music was a good fit for a day opener.

I moved on to NONONO which also didn’t disappoint.  I had become familiar with them a few months ago (before the Garnier Fructise commercial, I swear).

I decided to take one last day break to pack up before the afternoon/evening shows began.  Unfortunately, my Rastafarian friends would have to go alone in seeing Ziggy Marley this afternoon.   Jah will provide.

I made my way back in to the festival to catch Washed Out.  Sure, I discovered him through Portlandia just like everyone else, but I had gotten a few of his EPs and looked forward to the show.  Nothing too impressive, but that sort of music doesn’t lend itself to a concert very well.  Even the front row look sedated a bit.

The final two shows I decided to see were Phantogram and Childish Gambino.  Phantogram was great.  The duo did a great job performing.

So did Childish Gambino.  I was able to get about 15 rows back for the show.  I remember learning about Donald Glover’s rap career a few years ago during “Camp”, and I knew there was something talented about him as an artist in spite of the ridicule of my friends.  No one really calls him “the guy from Community” anymore.  Sure, I felt old with the congregate of under-age teens surrounding me (one girl announced it was her 19th birthday), but I still enjoyed it.

All and all, the experience was amazing.  I met a lot of amazing people, the atmosphere was good, and I was able to cherish it with some of my closest friends.  The summer music festival experience is so unique that it really has to be enjoyed at least once.  Will I camp again?  Maybe.  When you live 30 minutes away it’s really hard to ration why one would deprive themselves of so much human decency.

And to you, Bro Alley – in the words of Silky Johnson – I hope all the bad things in life happen to you, and nobody else, but you.





Diving back into things

June 13, 2014 Adam Thomas

Heyo!  Welcome back to theheadrush everyone! It has been too long since we posted and what better time than now, after one of the best days in sports?

World Cup

For starters, I love how people get so pumped up for the World Cup and then the first game has a controversial call and everybody is like “See, THIS is why I hate soccer!” and they just lose interest. Every article I’ve read about the Brazil/Croatia game has had a comment like this at the bottom: “This is why I can’t get into soccer. You wouldn’t see flopping like this in the NBA, MLB, NFL or NHL.” Oh really?

Dwyane Wade was just fined $10,000 for FLOPPING in the NBA finals. His sole role at this point in his career is to get on the court and feign getting elbowed in the throat by Manu Ginobli. Lynn Swann flopped all over the field whenever George Atkinson breathed on him back in the 70’s. And surely in baseball, a batter has never had a pitch hit the bottom of their bat and pretended that it hit them just so they could get a free walk up to first.

There is diving in every sport (I was going to make a Sidney Crosby joke, but then I remembered I don’t watch hockey enough to comment on it with authority, but that dude looks like he flops all the time).

The only difference is that in soccer, diving has dire consequences.

It’d be like if the NBA gave Wade 50 points for flopping instead of fining him afterwards. That is how much the Brazil decision swung the game yesterday. Make no mistake about it, Croatia was hanging with Brazil big time up until that goal.

However, let’s also be real about this for a second: Brazil was playing the opening game of the World Cup which–if you haven’t heard–is being played in Brazil. The chances of there NOT being a controversial call that went in favor of Brazil and against Croatia had to be 100,000 to 1. At some point during that game, Croatia was going to get boned. If you didn’t know that going in, well…I don’t know what to tell you. That’s just the way it is. And on a side note, not to get all Alexi Lalas on you all, but the keeper probably should’ve saved that PK. Not that it’s an easy thing to do (understatement, it’s probably one of the hardest things to do in sports) but he guessed right and got his hands on it.

Now, with all that being said, if that was America playing against Ghana and one of the Americans flopped like a fish and were awarded a penalty kick, how awesome would that be? It’s gotta feel nice to watch your team get rewarded a PK for having a player do absolutely nothing other than act as if they just shot off a gun like Owen Wilson on a quail hunt.

For the record, I would like to congratulate myself for correctly predicting Brazil 3-1 over Croatia in the Yahoo Sports soccer pick em. Way to go, self.

My picks for today?

Mexico 1–Cameroon 1

Spain 0–Netherlands 0

Chile 4–Australia 1 (poor Australia)

On to the NBA…

How great is it to watch the Heat get rolled up on by the Spurs? Man, they are getting destroyed.

And the cramp game was one of the funniest things I’ve ever seen. Lebron is just so freaking WEIRD! He is fantastic and a great player (one of the best ever) but he’s a weirdo.

I also loved how quick everyone either A.) Came to his defense with jabs at the twitterverse like “I didn’t realize how many people on Twitter knew what it was like to play in the NBA finals with cramps” SNARK! or B.) proclaimed Lebron to be a sissy.

I just think he is a head case and a weirdo, and that’s why he is hard to cheer for. I was seriously almost on the Lebandwagon, but after the cramp game, forget it. He is just lame.

The Spurs better win game 5 though, otherwise this thing is going 7.


Chip Kelly Proves NFL Players are Out of Shape

September 12, 2013 Adam Thomas

Did you guys hear how well Chip Kelly’s up-tempo offense did on Monday night?  I sure did. About a zillion times. But you know what? All that it proves to me is that NFL players are out of shape.

Seriously. If you can’t handle running for 5 seconds every 40 seconds, then that is a damn shame. In fact, football games only feature 11 minutes of actual action during the course of a game. If everything played out equally, that means defenses are on the field for about 5.5 minutes a game. Break it down again and individual defenses are on the field for 2.75 minutes A GAME. HOW IN THE WORLD CAN YOU BE TIRED FROM THAT?

Come on NFL players, lets do some distance running, shall we?

Also, how come nobody is talking about how this high powered offense only scored 7 points in the second half? Could it be that the Redskins figured out this complex scheme pretty quickly? I say yes. For all the love Chip Kelly’s team is getting, it seems to be lost that his team only won the game by six points.

Eagles fans have a tendency to blow things out of proportion (shocking, I know). So this week, on the Delaware Park Parlay card, I like the following:

Chargers +13.5, Dolphins +9.5 and the Rams +13.5.

Welcome back glorious football!


Tyrann Mathieu

Turnaround the Turnaround

August 15, 2013 Adam Thomas

I am so ready for the NFL season to begin. You know why? So we can stop having insane articles like this on

“Tyrann Mathieu proving Arizona Cardinals right with turnaround.”

The only problem with this headline? Tyrann Mathieu has not played in a single NFL game. So how in the world is he ‘proving Arizona Cardinals right?’

They drafted a player with off the field issues who so far hasn’t been a headache and has looked good in pre-season games. You know who else looked good in pre-season games? The 2006 Oakland Raiders. They went 5-0 and looked pretty darn good.

So what happened when the season rolled around? They busted out a stellar 2-14 record.

Just remember this when you see the Mathieu sack highlight played over and over and over again. Who did he sack? Graham freaking Harrell. Let’s pump the breaks a little bit here fellas.

Will Mathieu turn into a good NFL player? Maybe. But let’s wait until he does something in the real NFL to make that decision. Right now? The Cardinals just drafted a player who is on their team. Just like all 31 other NFL teams.


Albums of my Youth: Flickerstick Edition

August 14, 2013 Adam Thomas

Sometimes, you have to go back in order to go forward. With that in mind, I thought it’d be fun to take a look back to look at some albums that I was into back in high school/middle school. And what better way to kick off the series than with a band that was made famous by being on a VH1 reality show?

Honestly, there are probably a lot better ways to kick it off, but I gotta admit, there was a time when I absolutely LOVED Flickerstick.

I remember watching the finale of ‘Bands on the Run’ in my brother’s friend’s basement and getting so fired up when they won, then having my mom order their CD for me in the mail, buying their t-shirts and ultimately going to see them play at the Electric Factory in Philly.

I actually think that Flickerstick’s Welcoming Home the Astronauts is the perfect allegory for my teenage years: at the time, I thought I knew everything when in fact, I was wrong about almost everything. Like Flickerstick.

As a change to the Daft Punk post, I will be going through each song on the album and giving it a score on a 1-5 scale. I’m going to try to be as objective as possible, but it’s tough to hide the nostalgia factor in my scores.

Let’s get started, shall we?

Album: Welcoming Home the Astronauts

1.) Lift (With love we will survive)

Musically, the song isn’t that bad. The lyrics are a little meh, but it has a nice build up. The guitars and the little alien noise are pretty darned cool. Gotta give this song a 3.

2.) Talk Show Host

Blah, what a generic topic to base a generic song around. This is basically every Alt Pop song ever written. And again, the lyrics: “The Radi-O/it seems so shady Oh.” This song gets a 1.

3.) Chloroform the One you Love

“She’s Only 18/But such a beautiful dream/All she needs is some Chloroform and she’ll be mine” ummm….what? I never understood why they put ‘Talk Show Host’ and then this song back to back after ‘Lift.’ It totally sucks all the life out of the album. When you make an album, you only have so many bullets in the clip, and when you’re a band like Flickerstick, you can’t miss twice this early. This song also gets a 1.

flicker4.) Coke

Fun fact, when they signed on with Epic after winning bands on the run, they had to change the lyrics to this song because Coca Cola didn’t like the fact that they said, ‘Come on I want to buy the world a Coke and lay here naked with my girl.’ So they changed ‘Naked’ to ‘Taken.’

Guess what else? I didn’t even have to look that fact up. That’s how into Flickerstick I was and how my brain is filled with useless knowledge.

Coke is better than the previous two songs, and trust me, for an angst riddled teen, I must’ve listened to this song about 10,000 times. This song does have the definitive Flickerstick lyric as well: ‘Come on let’s die until we live.’ Even as a 15 year old, that one had me shaking my head. I’ll give Coke a 2.

5.) Beautiful

I feel like I’ve been waiting all album for this song which is certainly the bands’ biggest hit. Heck it even got played on Y100 back when Y100 was alternative rock. It still holds up, for me at least. I’ll give it a 3.

6.) Sorry…Wrong Trajectory

Definitely points off for the 1 minute build up that is just the same two guitar notes plucked over and over and over and OVER again. BUT, once it gets to the song, this is on par with Coke. The two guitar parts when played together are cool and I think the lead singer-Brandin Lea-sounds the best on this song. It gets a 2.5.

7.) You’re So Hollywood

I love the ‘That Thing you Do’ drums on this song, and the music is pretty darn catchy. Power chords one-time (or I guess 7 times at this point of the album).

If only they could’ve come up with a better hook. The ‘You’re So Hollywood’ just isn’t cutting it. It gets a 2.

8.) Got a Feeling

Gotta love the little synth at the beginning of the song. I remember this was one of my favorite songs on the album when I used to listen to it. In all honesty, I think that Flickerstick had the formula for writing mindless 3:30 minute pop-rock songs down COLD. Verse-Bridge-Chorus. Lather, rinse repeat.

When they veered from this formula, they were probably at their strongest (See ‘Lift’ and ‘Direct Line to the Telepathic’). I’ll give this a 2.5.

9.) Hey or When the Drugs Wear Off

The airplane take off sound effects on the snare drum at the beginning is a nice touch. As are the globs of chorus and flanger on the guitars. This song sounds like a B-side of a Killers album. It gets a 2.

10.) Right Way to Fly

I had totally forgotten about this song, and I’m not sure why because it’s one of the better ones on the album. Honestly, I’ll never understand why they went with ‘Talk Show Host’ and ‘Chloroform’ in the 2-3 slot when the could’ve easily put in ‘Got a Feeling’ and this song. I think that would’ve set a better tone for the album. This gets a 3.

11.) Direct Line to the Telepathic

It took them all album to get here, but here they are. I’m telling you, if Flickerstick had made more songs like this, they would’ve been really good. It’s one of the best examples of them being Pink Floyd-light (and by that I mean REALLY light…but still). Lyrically and musically, this is the best song on the album. They finish it off with a 3.5.

Overall, I’d say the album is about a 2.5. (BTW, the re-release of this album on Epic got a 4.5 out of 10 on Pitchfork and 3 out of 5 stars in Rollingstone).

Would I recommend the album? Sure. But only if you listened to it in high school. If not, it may be a little bit harder to appreciate.

Like most things about the ‘Glory Days,’ they’re fun to visit now and then, but you don’t wanna live there.


Percy Harvin

The NFL Double Standard

August 1, 2013 Adam Thomas

Can you imagine if a team like the Jets had traded a first and seventh round pick in this year’s draft and a third round pick in next year’s draft for a wide receiver, and then gave that player a 5 year contract worth 25.5 million dollars in guaranteed money AND THEN it turned out that player had to have hip surgery and was out for–possibly–the entire season?


But instead, we get….crickets. From CBSSports “Obviously, this is bad news for the Seahawks.” Obviously.

From ESPN “The loss of Harvin is significant, but not a huge setback for a team that relies on the legs of Marshawn Lynch and timely passing of Russell Wilson to drive its offense.” OK…so if it’s not a setback then why did they trade a 1, 3, and 7 for him, and give him a huge contract?

Harvin, at best, will miss 12 to 16 weeks. This is a guy who couldn’t get on the field because of migraines. You think he is going to jump back immediately when he is cleared from hip surgery?  Doubtful.

So let’s call this trade what it is: Bad.

Seattle: You got fleeced.